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A Comprehensive Guide on Swedish Crypto Taxes 2023
By
Pratibha Tiwari
On

Are you among the many Swedish citizens involved in cryptocurrency transactions and unsure about the tax implications? 

Don't worry, you're not alone!

Thousands of people are confused about how their crypto activities are taxed in Sweden and how this affects their tax obligations. That's why we've created a comprehensive guide to simplify the complexities of crypto taxation in Sweden for you. 

Our guide covers every aspect of crypto taxation, including how to calculate your crypto taxes and report them easily. We'll also keep this guide up-to-date with the latest guidelines from the Skatteverket, so you don't miss out on any crucial updates. So let's dive in and demystify the world of crypto taxes in Sweden.

How are Cryptocurrencies Taxed in Sweden?

According to the Skatteverket (tax authority in Sweden), Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are not considered as currency but are instead categorized as property. As a result, any sale or disposal of crypto assets is subject to capital gains tax in Sweden. It is important to note that the Skatteverket classifies bitcoin, altcoins, and other crypto assets as "other assets," which are subject to taxation under Chapter 52 of the Swedish Income Tax Act.

In addition to capital gains tax on crypto assets, it is also possible that you may be liable for other taxes such as income tax/ employment tax, and interest income tax, depending on the specific circumstances. Each scenario is unique and may attract different types of taxes, which we will discuss further.

Crypto Tax Gain

As discussed earlier, cryptocurrencies fall under the category of "Other Assets" defined in Chapter 52 of the Swedish Income Tax Act. As a result, if you’re selling Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies it is subject to capital gains reporting requirements. However, there are numerous complex scenarios that may require capital gains tax calculations, the fundamental expectation is that you, who hold cryptocurrencies, have to declare and pay capital gains taxes.

The following scenarios are subject to capital gain tax:

  1. Selling a cryptocurrency for fiat currency (such as USD, EUR, or SEK)
  2. Trading one type of cryptocurrency for another
  3. Exchanging a cryptocurrency for a fiat currency
  4. Using a cryptocurrency to purchase goods or services
  5. Lending out a cryptocurrency (which may result in taxable income or capital gains, depending on the specific circumstances)

Capital Gain Rate

If you are a Swedish resident and have earned capital gains from cryptocurrencies, you are subject to the same tax rate of 30% that applies to other types of assets such as bank savings, equities, dividends, and real estate. This means that the tax rate for cryptocurrency capital gains is not different from that for other types of capital gains in Sweden.

Crypto Losses

You can offset 70% of any capital losses you incur during a tax year against your capital gains and claim a tax deduction for the remaining losses. However, to take advantage of this tax deduction, you should actively track and record your losses accurately.

Keeping accurate records of all your cryptocurrency transactions, including the purchase date, cost basis, and other relevant details is essential when calculating your capital gains and losses for tax purposes. If you maintain detailed records, you can claim your tax deductions and offset your capital losses against your capital gains, thereby minimizing your tax liability.

Lost Or Stolen Crypto 

In Sweden, it is not mandatory to pay taxes on cryptocurrency that has been lost or stolen. Nonetheless, any losses incurred from such incidents cannot be used to offset your capital gains taxes. If you experience a loss as a result of lost or stolen cryptocurrency, the corresponding cost basis must be excluded from your tax calculations when determining your taxable gains or losses. As a result, this loss cannot be utilized to reduce your tax liability or offset your profits.

How to Calculate Crypto Gains and Losses

You have to use the “Average Cost Basis Method”, or Genomsnittsmetoden in Swedish while calculating capital gains tax on cryptocurrency. To accurately calculate your cryptocurrency gains tax, it is essential to establish your "Cost Basis" or Omkostnadsbelopp in Swedish. Typically, the cost basis is the average price at which the cryptocurrency was purchased which is mostly expressed in Swedish Krona (SEK).

While calculating your profit or loss for capital gain tax, subtract your cost basis from the selling price of the cryptocurrency. If you have made a profit, you will be required to pay a 30% tax on the gain, while if you have made a loss, you may be able to deduct 70% of the loss.

As an example, suppose you purchased three BTC for SEK 2000, 3000, and 4000, and sold one BTC for SEK 4000. Your cost basis would be SEK 9000 divided by 3, or SEK 3000. Your taxable gain would be SEK 4000 minus SEK 3000, or SEK 1000.

Income Tax

If you have received cryptocurrency as compensation for your labour or services, you are required to pay standard income taxes on it, just as you would if you were paid in your local currency.

However, if you choose to hold onto the cryptocurrency you received, any profits or losses that occur when you sell it will be subject to capital gains taxes. The cost basis for this purpose will be equivalent to the amount you reported on your income tax return.

Now there are ways you can earn crypto as an income, but if you earn cryptocurrency as income in Sweden, you are required to pay income tax on it.

  • Mining
  • Rewards (e.g., referrals)
  • Income (e.g., salary, freelancing)
  • Creating and selling NFTs

Crypto Income Tax Rate

In Sweden, the income tax system comprises two types of taxes: 

  • National income tax.
  • Municipal income tax.

The national income tax applies to you if your income exceeds SEK 613,900 for the 2023 tax year. 

On the other hand, the municipal income tax rate varies depending on the municipality in which you live. The percentage of your income that is subject to municipal income tax is determined by the municipality's tax rate, which can differ from one municipality to another.

Interest Income Tax

If you have received cryptocurrency as loan interest or staking rewards, you will be subject to interest income tax, also known as "Ränteinkomst" in Swedish. This type of income is taxed at a flat rate of 30%, similar to capital gains tax.

Interest Income Tax Rate

In Sweden, interest income from loan interest and staking rewards is subject to a flat rate tax of 30%. The key difference between interest income tax and capital gains tax is that any losses incurred from interest payments you have made are fully deductible.

To calculate your interest income tax, you will need to sum up the total income you have received from your loan interest and staking rewards activities. This total amount will be subject to the flat rate of 30% tax.

When to Report Crypto Taxes in Sweden?

In Sweden, the tax year runs from January 1st to December 31st. You should include your crypto taxes in your annual tax return, along with your employment income.

For the 2022 tax year, the deadline for filing your tax return is May 1, 2023. Be aware that failing to file your tax return by the deadline may result in penalties and additional charges. It is advisable to submit your tax return well before the deadline to avoid any such penalties.

How to File Crypto Taxes in Sweden?

Once you’ve calculated the cryptocurrency taxes you can file capital gains tax, employment tax, and interest income taxes online mode or via mail.

Let’s understand all these taxes one by one.

Submitting Capital Gains Tax in Sweden

There are three methods to submit your capital gains taxes:

  1. You can enter your crypto taxes in Section D of the K4 tax form using a paper form and mail it to Skatteverket.

“K4 Tax Form is where all profit and loss need to be addressed. Moreover, you need to keep in mind the gains and losses which must be reported separately.”

  1. Fill in the K4 form manually on Skatteverket's online portal.
  2. Alternatively, you can upload SRU (Standardized Accounting Extract) files to the online portal which will automatically complete the K4 form.

Submitting Employment Income Tax in Sweden

Submitting employment income tax depends on the type of income you’ve received. The following are the steps to report various types of income:

Salary:

Your employer should have already declared this income, but if they failed to do so, you can manually report it by visiting the Ändra section (under section D) of the K4 form and entering the value of income you received.

Rewards/Mining:

To report income from rewards or mining, you need to fill out a T2 form. You can find the form in the online portal by going to Bilagor > Inkomst av hobby, internetinkomster m.m. (T2).

Tax On Mining Crypto Sweden

According to Skatteverket if you are mining as an individual then the proceeds are classified as income from a hobby. Hence, you are required to declare and pay Income Tax on mining proceeds. 

To determine the amount of income tax you owe on your mining proceeds, you need to calculate the value of the proceeds in your local currency on the day you receive them. The cost basis of the newly minted coins is equal to the amount you declared in income.

However, if you decide to sell the cryptocurrency you have mined in the future, you will be subject to regular capital gains taxes on any profits or losses you incur. This means that if the value of the cryptocurrency has increased since the day you mined it, you will owe capital gains taxes on the difference in value.

Crypto margin trading and futures

In Sweden, crypto margin trading and futures are treated as crypto gains and are subject to capital gains tax when the position is closed. If you make a profit, the cost basis of the profit is applied after paying the capital gains taxes. If you incur a loss, it's equivalent to selling the coins at 0 SEK, and the loss is calculated based on the average cost basis of the coins.

NFT Taxes Sweden

The tax implications of NFTs vary depending on the circumstance. If you have bought or sold an NFT, it is treated similarly to any other cryptocurrency and you have to pay capital gain. However, if you create NFTs to sell them for profit, you may be subject to income tax. Moreover, it's important for you to determine whether this activity constitutes a hobby or a business.

Regardless of your involvement with NFTs, it's advisable to include a statement in your tax filing that clarifies how you handled NFT taxes. This statement, known as "Öppet Yrkande" in Swedish, can reduce the likelihood of incurring a tax surcharge due to errors.

DeFi Taxes Sweden

Although the Skatteverket has not yet provided specific guidelines for DeFi taxation, it is important to note that DeFi activities are not exempt from being taxed. Whether you are selling, swapping, or using cryptocurrency, or receiving coins or tokens as income, your DeFi activities will be subject to taxation

Given below are some De-Fi transactions that attract tax liabilities in Sweden:

  • Lending crypto through P2P lending platforms is considered as a sale by the Swedish tax authorities and in turn attracts capital gains tax
  • The interest incurred from lending crypto assets is considered as an income and therefore attracts an income tax(the interest is to be declared in section D of From K4).
  • Using crypto as collateral to borrow funds from De-Fi platforms is considered as a sale and attracts capital gains tax
  • Staking your assets is considered as a sale by the swedish tax authorities and attracts capital gains tax
  • Staking rewards on the other hand are considered as an income and therefore attract an income tax.

Can the Skatteverket Track Crypto?

Yes, Skatteverket can access your records from cryptocurrency exchanges, including your holdings, transaction history, and withdrawal addresses due to strict regulation and the availability of data on public blockchains.

Most exchanges require users to complete a 'Know-Your-Customer' (KYC) application before purchasing cryptocurrencies. Thus, if you have signed up for any exchange that requires this check, Skatteverket is likely to have your record. 

Additionally, the European Union's stricter regulations regarding customer identification means that data is shared between EU member states. This directive has made it easier for financial authorities like Skatteverket to gain access to data on cryptocurrency owners. 

What Crypto Records will the Skatteverket want?

These are the general crypto records that need to be reported to Skatteverket:

  • Type of transaction
  • Date of the transaction
  • Which cryptocurrency was part of the transaction
  • Exchange records and other relevant statements
  • The amount bought, sold, or exchanged
  • Wallet addresses that you possess the private keys for.
  • Value of the cryptocurrency in SEK at the time of the transaction

How are Airdrops and Forks Taxed in Sweden?

Airdrops and forks are commonly viewed as ‘Gifts’ from the token holder so, you’re not liable to pay taxes. But you're only required to pay taxes when you sell them, and you should establish a cost basis of zero in this scenario.

If the airdrop was earned as compensation for a service, such as referring individuals, it may be classified as income tax. The Skattverket does not explicitly mention the taxation of cryptocurrency hard forks, but they're likely treated similarly to airdrops due to their comparable nature.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  1. Is crypto legal in Sweden?

Yes, crypto is legal in Sweden and is categorized as an “others asset” instead of a currency by the Skattverket (Swedish Taxation Office) and taxed accordingly.

  1. What are the non-taxable crypto transactions in Sweden?

Here are the few non-taxable crypto transactions in Sweden that we haven’t discussed earlier.

Purchasing Crypto with Fiat Currency

Purchasing crypto doesn't incur any taxes, but it's essential to maintain a record of the price paid for it to include in your average cost basis or "Omkostnadsbelopp" in Swedish. If you've bought the crypto in a foreign currency such as USD or EUR, make sure to convert it to the local currency's value on the date of purchase. This is necessary for accurately calculating any future taxes you might incur upon selling the crypto.

Transfer of Crypto between Wallets

Transferring crypto between your wallets and exchanges is not subject to taxes. Only the transaction fee is taxable. 

Gifting or Receiving Crypto

When you gift someone crypto, it's not taxable. However, you can't subtract it from your profits, similar to lost or stolen crypto. Receiving crypto as a gift is also non-taxable until you decide to sell it. In this case, the cost basis you should use is the price at which the person who gifted you the crypto originally purchased it. 

Donating Crypto

Donating crypto is also non-taxable, but unlike in some other countries, it's not tax-deductible in Sweden. For a donation to qualify for a tax deduction, it must be given in the form of currency, which Skatteverket does not consider crypto to be.

  1. What happens if I don’t report my Crypto taxes?

If you don’t report your crypto taxes accurately or provide incorrect information to the Swedish Tax Authorities, you may end up paying penalties of up to 40% of the evaded taxes in addition to the regular tax rate, depending on the situation and periodic severe cases, you could even face criminal prosecution and up to 6 years in prison. The Skatteverket considers tax evasion a grave offense and may have access to data on individuals who have undergone KYC checks on centralized exchanges. Therefore, you must apply the correct tax treatment to your crypto transactions and file taxes correctly.

  1. How is staking taxed in Sweden?

Staking rewards earned from cryptocurrency holdings are subject to interest income taxes in Sweden. Typically, staking rewards are paid in the same cryptocurrency as the one you are staking towards. The cryptocurrency received will have a cost basis equal to the local currency value on the day you gain access to the staking rewards. If you hold the crypto and sell it later, regular capital gains taxes will apply.

  1. Can I claim tax benefits in Sweden if Celsius goes bankrupt?

Celsius is currently undergoing a corporate restructuring process through Chapter 11, which means that any outstanding receivable cannot be regarded as disposed of due to the ongoing bankruptcy proceedings. If Celsius is ultimately declared bankrupt, the Swedish tax authority Skatteverket will evaluate whether your claim of disposal is valid. 

To claim tax deductions for losses on your Celsius claim, it is currently necessary to sell or dispose of it. However, to ensure that your claim is considered disposed of, it must be sold in a manner that is not considered a gift or transferred below market value. Otherwise, such transactions will not be considered as disposal of the asset. Therefore, it is important to take appropriate action and sell your claim at market value to qualify for any tax benefits.

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